Presently, biological materials such as nucleic acids, proteins, cells, viruses and vaccines, are maintained and transported in cold environments (4ºC, -20ºC, -80ºC and liquid nitrogen) to preserve sample integrity. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles or prolonged exposure to increased temperatures degrade precious and labile biological materials. Sustaining cold environments requires constant energy supplies and resources that are not always readily available or reliable. Consequently, transporting and storing biological samples often times involves enormous expense and complicated logistics. Despite elaborate precautions taken to maintain sample integrity, it has been difficult to control all environmental variables – until now.